Does vigorous exercise have a neuroprotective effect in Parkinson’s Disease?

I’ve started this topic to collect references to studies that explore the neuroprotective benefits of vigorous exercise to slow the progression of Parkinson’s Disease.

Let’s start with a few quotes from the National Parkinson Foundation …

Research has shown that exercise can improve gait, balance, tremor, flexibility, grip strength and motor coordination.

There is a strong consensus among physicians and physical therapists that improved mobility decreases the risk of falls and some other complications of Parkinson’s.

Beyond this, we know that people who exercise vigorously, for example by doing things like running or riding a bicycle, have fewer changes in their brains caused by aging.

However, when it comes to exercise and PD, greater intensity equals greater benefits. Experts recommend that people with Parkinson’s, particularly young onset or those in the early stages, exercise with intensity for as long as possible as often as possible. Your doctor might recommend an hour a day three or four times a week, but most researchers think that the more you do, the more you benefit.

Scientists at University of Pittsburgh found that in animal models, exercise induces and increases the beneficial neurotrophic factors,

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